Virtual Humanoid Soccer Competition

Virtual Humanoid Soccer Competition 

This website will give an overview of the technical details for the Virtual Humanoid Soccer competition. 

Note: This site will be updated frequently to always reflect the current state of the organization. 


The open-source simulator Webots is used for the Virtual Humanoid Soccer competition. The Technical Committee will provide:

  • the game environment, including a model of the artificial grass and stadium surroundings
  • an automatic refereeing system enforcing the laws of the game which communicates with the GameController software 

The latest version of the competition setup, including the final virtual environment, can be found in the official Webots repository.

Teams need to provide a robot model to compete with, as well as the robot control software. 

Laws of the Game

The laws of the game have been adapted from the Humanoid Soccer Competition Laws of the Game 2020. The current draft of the rules can be found here: 

The changes marked are in comparison to the 2020 version of the Humanoid Soccer Competition Laws of the Game.

Comments on and suggestions for the final rule book can be made in the Humanoid League Forum until April 14th. 

The third version of the Laws of the Game has been published on April 1st. The final rule book is planned to be released on April 19th.

Game Environment

The official game environment including a Darwin OP robot model can be found in the Webots repository. The visuals of the game environment can be considered final and will only be updated if absolutely necessary.


The Humanoid League will provide an automatic refereeing system to enforce the laws of the game. The decisions made by the AutoRef software are final, even if they may, at times, be faulty. After the simulation was conducted and the resulting video streamed, teams have half an hour to virtually sign the game result or complain about the result to the Technical Committee. Complaints need to be based on serious violations of fair behavior repeatedly performed by the opponent team during the game. In case of a complaint, the Technical Committee will review the game and either decide that the game result is valid, or that the game needs to be replayed. In the latter case, the team showing unsportive behavior may receive a yellow card and need to change their software to prevent the unsportive behavior seen in the game.

The AutoRef software will be published here on April 26th (tentative date). 

Robot Model & Control Software

A sample robot model is provided in the Webots repository. Teams are expected to provide their own robot models to compete with. However, they may choose to play with the robot of another team or the sample robot model.

Robot Model

To ensure that the robot models created by the individual teams do not violate the requirements set by the Technical Committee, all robot models need to be submitted ahead of time and respect the robot model specifications. The submission process consists of two steps:

  1. An initial model needs to be submitted via the only submission system by April 23rd. All teams submitting a robot model will then be assigned to two other teams to peer-review the robot model provided by the other team. Teams have until May 3rd to provide the result of the peer-review process via the submission system.
  2. Teams receive feedback on the robot model both from the two teams peer-reviewing their model as well as from the Technical Committee on May 7th. They are then given time to implement the feedback and change the model until May 23rd. The second version of the robot model will be checked by the Technical Committee to ensure all requirements are met. 

In case teams wish to make updates to the robot model after May 23rd, they need to submit a written request to the Technical Committee, including the new version of the robot model as well as a statement including (a) what changes were made to the robot model and (b) why these changes were made. Changes requested less than 12 hours prior to the next scheduled game are not guaranteed to be reviewed by the Technical Committee in time.  

Robot Control Software

Teams will be able to perceive their environment and act based on the dedicated API which is still under discussion and will be updated on April 19th. The next update is expected to finalize the numbers on the bandwidth and update frequency.

Teams need to submit the latest version of the robot control software latest two hours prior to their next scheduled games. Details on how the robot software shall be submitted during the tournament will be provided closer to the tournament. Some initial details are already drafted in the server specification.


The competition will be set up to resemble the Humanoid Soccer Competition as closely as possible. This includes a virtual space provided to teams to collaboratively work together and meet other teams as well as streaming of the virtual games. To keep the tournament interesting and exciting, teams do only receive access to the log files after the games have been streamed. 


Each robot runs on its own virtual instance. Instances will have an Intel Cascade Lake with 4 vCPU and a Nvidia Tesla T4 GPU or a setup similar in performance.

Details on the setup and the procedure to simulate games on a server are presented in the server specification which is still under discussion and will be updated on April 19th. The exact setup including the specific instances and cloud infrastructure used is expected to be announced in the next update of the document.

Robot instances may only communicate with each other over the network. Network communication is limited to 1 Mbit/s per team and this rule will be strictly enforced. Robots will receive all necessary information about the game state via the GameController. 


To allow teams to test their simulation software under realistic conditions, the Technical Committee will host a mock-competition from June 4th to June 6th 2021. Teams signed-up for the mock-competition will receive the possibility to upload their software and play simulated games either against other teams or their own robots. Teams will receive several time slots for practice during the weekend. The exact number of slots will depend on the number of teams signing up to participate.